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Diamonds

Diamonds 2,20ct H VS1 Runder Brillantschliff Loser Diamant GIA-zertifiziert

Diamonds ist ein Lied von Sia Furler, Benjamin Levin, Mikkel S. Eriksen, Tor Erik Hermansen aus dem Jahr Es wurde für die aus Barbados stammende. Diamonds (‚Diamanten') bezeichnet: Diamonds (Antigua), Ort im St. Philips Parish, auf der Karibikinsel Antigua. Diamonds (Film), US-amerikanischer Spielfilm. Welcome to Designer Diamonds. Visit us in our branches in Augsburg and Munich. For wedding rings, engagement rings and more! Clarte diamonds —. Founded in August in Hamburg, the north German metropolis of creative people, we sell exclusively sustainably produced diamonds. Südafrikanischer rundgeschliffener Naturdiamant mit Brillantschliff, 2,20ct, Farbe H, Klarheit VS1, zertifiziert von der GIA. Direkt aus der Mine mit großem Wert.

Diamonds

Leibish & Co. specializes in Natural Fancy Diamonds & Diamond Jewelry. Discover our collection of fancy color diamonds. Clarte diamonds —. Founded in August in Hamburg, the north German metropolis of creative people, we sell exclusively sustainably produced diamonds. Diamonds (‚Diamanten') bezeichnet: Diamonds (Antigua), Ort im St. Philips Parish, auf der Karibikinsel Antigua. Diamonds (Film), US-amerikanischer Spielfilm.

Total carat weight t. Diamond solitaire earrings, for example, are usually quoted in t. Clarity is a measure of internal defects of a diamond called inclusions.

Inclusions may be crystals of a foreign material or another diamond crystal, or structural imperfections such as tiny cracks that can appear whitish or cloudy.

The number, size, color, relative location, orientation, and visibility of inclusions can all affect the relative clarity of a diamond.

Diamonds become increasingly rare when considering higher clarity gradings. Those that do not have a visible inclusion are known as "eye-clean" and are preferred by most buyers, although visible inclusions can sometimes be hidden under the setting in a piece of jewelry.

Most inclusions present in gem-quality diamonds do not affect the diamonds' performance or structural integrity. When set in jewelry, it may also be possible to hide certain inclusion behind mounting hardware such as prongs in a way that renders the defect invisible.

However, large clouds can affect a diamond's ability to transmit and scatter light. Large cracks close to or breaking the surface may increase the likelihood of a fracture.

The finest quality as per color grading is totally colorless, which is graded as D color diamond across the globe, meaning it is absolutely free from any color.

However, when studded in jewellery these very light colored diamonds do not show any color or it is not possible to make out color shades.

These are graded as E color or F color diamonds. Diamonds which show very little traces of color are graded as G or H color diamonds.

Slightly colored diamonds are graded as I or J or K color. A diamond can be found in any color in addition to colorless. Some of the colored diamonds, such as pink, are very rare.

A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue , or color. However, in reality most gem-sized natural diamonds are imperfect.

Depending on the hue and intensity of a diamond's coloration, a diamond's color can either detract from or enhance its value.

For example, most white diamonds are discounted in price as a more yellow hue is detectable, while intense pink or blue diamonds such as the Hope Diamond can be dramatically more valuable.

The Aurora Diamond Collection displays a spectacular array of naturally colored diamonds , which occur in every color of the rainbow. Most diamonds used as gemstones are basically transparent with little tint, or white diamonds.

The most common impurity, nitrogen , replaces a small proportion of carbon atoms in a diamond's structure and causes a yellowish to brownish tint.

The GIA has developed a rating system for color in white diamonds, from D to Z with D being "colorless" and Z having a bright yellow coloration , which has been widely adopted in the industry and is universally recognized, superseding several older systems.

The GIA system uses a benchmark set of natural diamonds of known color grade, along with standardized and carefully controlled lighting conditions.

Diamonds with higher color grades are rarer, in higher demand, and therefore more expensive, than lower color grades.

Oddly enough, diamonds graded Z are also rare, and the bright yellow color is also highly valued. N—Y usually appear light yellow or brown.

In contrast to yellow or brown hues, diamonds of other colors are more rare and valuable. While even a pale pink or blue hue may increase the value of a diamond, more intense coloration is usually considered more desirable and commands the highest prices.

A variety of impurities and structural imperfections cause different colors in diamonds, including yellow, pink, blue, red, green, brown, and other hues.

Black diamond's natural form is known as Carbonado , the toughest form of the diamond which is porous and difficult to cut.

Black diamonds are natural, man-made, treated black diamonds. Some black diamonds are expensive than other types of black diamonds because of the quality, durability, production cost, and few other factors.

Intense yellow coloration is considered one of the fancy colors, and is separate from the color grades of white diamonds.

Gemologists have developed rating systems for fancy colored diamonds, but they are not in common use because of the relative rarity of such diamonds.

Diamond cutting is the art and science of creating a gem-quality diamond out of mined rough. The cut of a diamond describes the manner in which a diamond has been shaped and polished from its beginning form as a rough stone to its final gem proportions.

The cut of a diamond describes the quality of workmanship and the angles to which a diamond is cut. Often diamond cut is confused with "shape".

There are mathematical guidelines for the angles and length ratios at which the diamond is supposed to be cut in order to reflect the maximum amount of light.

Round brilliant diamonds, the most common, are guided by these specific guidelines, though fancy cut stones are not able to be as accurately guided by mathematical specifics.

The techniques for cutting diamonds have been developed over hundreds of years, with perhaps the greatest achievements made in by mathematician and gem enthusiast Marcel Tolkowsky.

He developed the round brilliant cut by calculating the ideal shape to return and scatter light when a diamond is viewed from above.

The modern round brilliant has 57 facets polished faces , counting 33 on the crown the top half , and 24 on the pavilion the lower half. The girdle is the thin middle part.

The function of the crown is to refract light into various colors and the pavilion's function to reflect light back through the top of the diamond.

The culet is the tiny point or facet at the bottom of the diamond. This should be a negligible diameter, otherwise light leaks out of the bottom.

Tolkowsky's calculations included neither a culet nor a girdle. However, a girdle is required in reality in order to prevent the diamond from easily chipping in the setting.

The thick part of the girdle is normally about 1. The further the diamond's characteristics are from the Tolkowsky's ideal, the less light will be reflected.

However, there is a small range in which the diamond can be considered "ideal". Tolkowsky's calculations can be repeated for a narrow range of pavilion angles.

Such calculations show a slightly larger table percentage, and a trade-off between pavilion angle and crown angle. Today, because of the relative importance of carat weight among buyers, many diamonds are often intentionally cut poorly to increase carat weight.

There is a financial premium for a diamond that weighs the desirable 1. Neither of these changes makes the diamond appear any larger, and both greatly reduce the sparkle of the diamond.

A poorly cut 1. The depth percentage is the overall quickest indication of the quality of the cut of a round brilliant. Another quick indication is the overall diameter.

Typically a round brilliant 1. Mathematically, the diameter in millimeters of a round brilliant should approximately equal to 6. Diamonds do not show all of their beauty as rough stones; instead, they must be cut and polished to exhibit the characteristic fire and brilliance that diamond gemstones are known for.

Diamonds are cut into a variety of shapes that are generally designed to accentuate these features. Diamonds which are not cut into a round brilliant shape are known as "fancy cuts.

Newer cuts that have been introduced into the jewelry industry are the "cushion" "radiant" similar to princess cuts, but with rounded edges instead of square edges and Asscher cuts.

Many fancy colored diamonds are now being cut according to these new styles. Generally speaking, these "fancy cuts" are not held to the same strict standards as Tolkowsky-derived round brilliants and there are less specific mathematical guidelines of angles which determine a well-cut stone.

Cuts are influenced heavily by fashion: the baguette cut—which accentuates a diamond's luster and downplays its fire—was popular during the Art Deco period, whereas the princess cut — which accentuates a diamond's fire rather than its luster — is currently gaining popularity.

The princess cut is also popular amongst diamond cutters: of all the cuts, it wastes the least of the original crystal.

The past decades have seen the development of new diamond cuts, often based on a modification of an existing cut. Some of these include extra facets.

These newly developed cuts are viewed by many as more of an attempt at brand differentiation by diamond sellers, than actual improvements to the state of the art.

The quality of a diamond's cut is widely considered the most important of the four Cs in determining the beauty of a diamond; indeed, it is commonly acknowledged that a well-cut diamond can appear to be of greater carat weight, and have clarity and color appear to be of better grade than they actually are.

The skill with which a diamond is cut determines its ability to reflect and refract light. In addition to carrying the most importance to a diamond's quality as a gemstone, the cut is also the most difficult to quantitatively judge.

A number of factors, including proportion, polish, symmetry , and the relative angles of various facets, are determined by the quality of the cut and can affect the performance of a diamond.

A diamond with facets cut only a few degrees out of alignment can result in a poorly performing stone. For a round brilliant cut, there is a balance between "brilliance" and "fire".

When a diamond is cut for too much "fire", it looks like a cubic zirconia , which gives off much more "fire" than real diamond. A well-executed round brilliant cut should reflect light upwards and make the diamond appear white when viewed from the top.

An inferior cut will produce a stone that appears dark at the center and in extreme cases the setting may be seen through the top of the diamond as shadows.

Several different theories on the "ideal" proportions of a diamond have been and continue to be advocated by various owners of patents on machines to view how well a diamond is cut.

These advocate a shift away from grading cut by the use of various angles and proportions toward measuring the performance of a cut stone.

A number of specially modified viewers and machines have been developed toward this end. Hearts and Arrows viewers test for the " hearts and arrows " characteristic pattern observable in stones exhibiting high symmetry and particular cut angles.

Closely related to Hearts and Arrows viewers is the ASET which tests for light leakage, light return, and proportions. Detractors, however, see these machines as marketing tools rather than scientific ones.

The GIA has developed a set of criteria for grading the cut of round brilliant stones that is now the standard in the diamond industry and is called Facetware.

The process of shaping a rough diamond into a polished gemstone is both an art and a science. The choice of cut is often decided by the original shape of the rough stone, location of the inclusions and flaws to be eliminated, the preservation of the weight, popularity of certain shapes amongst consumers and many other considerations.

Oddly shaped crystals such as macles are more likely to be cut in a fancy cut —that is, a cut other than the round brilliant—which the particular crystal shape lends itself to.

Since the per carat price of diamond shifts around key milestones such as 1. Some jewelry experts advise consumers to buy a 0.

In the gem trade, the term light performance is used to describe how well a polished diamond will return light to the viewer. There are three light properties which are described in relation to light performance: brilliance, fire, and scintillation.

Brilliance refers to the white light reflections from the external and internal facet surfaces. Fire refers to the spectral colors which are produced as a result of the diamond dispersing the white light.

Most diamonds used as gems are transparent and colourless or nearly so. Colourless or pale blue stones are most valued, but these are rare; most gem diamonds are tinged with yellow.

Most industrial diamonds are gray or brown and are translucent or opaque, but better-quality industrial stones grade imperceptibly into poor quality gems.

The colour of diamonds may be changed by exposure to intense radiation as released in a nuclear reactor or by a particle accelerator or by heat treatment.

A very high refractive power gives the diamond its extraordinary brilliance. A properly cut diamond will return a greater amount of light to the eye of the observer than will a gem of lesser refractive power and will thus appear more brilliant.

The high dispersion gives diamonds their fire, which is caused by the separation of white light into the colours of the spectrum as it passes through the stone.

The scratch hardness of diamond is assigned the value of 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness ; corundum, the mineral next to diamond in hardness, is rated as 9.

The hardness of a diamond varies significantly in different directions, causing cutting and polishing of some faces to be easier than others.

For detailed physical properties, see native element table. In the atomic structure of diamond, as determined by X-ray diffraction techniques, each carbon atom is linked to four equidistant neighbours throughout the crystal.

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The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree Diamonds occur most often as euhedral or rounded octahedra and twinned octahedra known as macles.

As diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cube , octahedron, rhombicosidodecahedron , tetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron.

The crystals can have rounded off and unexpressive edges and can be elongated. Diamonds especially those with rounded crystal faces are commonly found coated in nyf , an opaque gum-like skin.

Some diamonds have opaque fibers. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers grow from a clear substrate or fibrous if they occupy the entire crystal.

Their colors range from yellow to green or gray, sometimes with cloud-like white to gray impurities. Their most common shape is cuboidal, but they can also form octahedra, dodecahedra, macles or combined shapes.

The structure is the result of numerous impurities with sizes between 1 and 5 microns. These diamonds probably formed in kimberlite magma and sampled the volatiles.

Diamonds can also form polycrystalline aggregates. There have been attempts to classify them into groups with names such as boart , ballas , stewartite and framesite, but there is no widely accepted set of criteria.

There are many theories for its origin, including formation in a star, but no consensus. Diamond is the hardest known natural material on both the Vickers scale and the Mohs scale.

Diamond's great hardness relative to other materials has been known since antiquity, and is the source of its name. The hardness of diamond contributes to its suitability as a gemstone.

Because it can only be scratched by other diamonds, it maintains its polish extremely well. Unlike many other gems, it is well-suited to daily wear because of its resistance to scratching—perhaps contributing to its popularity as the preferred gem in engagement or wedding rings , which are often worn every day.

These diamonds are generally small, perfect to semiperfect octahedra, and are used to polish other diamonds. Their hardness is associated with the crystal growth form, which is single-stage crystal growth.

Most other diamonds show more evidence of multiple growth stages, which produce inclusions, flaws, and defect planes in the crystal lattice, all of which affect their hardness.

It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges.

Somewhat related to hardness is another mechanical property toughness , which is a material's ability to resist breakage from forceful impact. The toughness of natural diamond has been measured as 7.

As with any material, the macroscopic geometry of a diamond contributes to its resistance to breakage. Diamond has a cleavage plane and is therefore more fragile in some orientations than others.

Diamond cutters use this attribute to cleave some stones, prior to faceting. Usually, attempting to deform bulk diamond crystal by tension or bending results in brittle fracture.

Other specialized applications also exist or are being developed, including use as semiconductors : some blue diamonds are natural semiconductors, in contrast to most diamonds, which are excellent electrical insulators.

Boron substitutes for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice, donating a hole into the valence band. Substantial conductivity is commonly observed in nominally undoped diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition.

This conductivity is associated with hydrogen-related species adsorbed at the surface, and it can be removed by annealing or other surface treatments.

Diamonds are naturally lipophilic and hydrophobic , which means the diamonds' surface cannot be wet by water, but can be easily wet and stuck by oil.

This property can be utilized to extract diamonds using oil when making synthetic diamonds. However, when diamond surfaces are chemically modified with certain ions, they are expected to become so hydrophilic that they can stabilize multiple layers of water ice at human body temperature.

The surface of diamonds is partially oxidized. The oxidized surface can be reduced by heat treatment under hydrogen flow. That is to say, this heat treatment partially removes oxygen-containing functional groups.

The structure gradually changes into sp 2 C above this temperature. Thus, diamonds should be reduced under this temperature.

At room temperature, diamonds do not react with any chemical reagents including strong acids and bases. It increases in temperature from red to white heat and burns with a pale blue flame, and continues to burn after the source of heat is removed.

By contrast, in air the combustion will cease as soon as the heat is removed because the oxygen is diluted with nitrogen.

A clear, flawless, transparent diamond is completely converted to carbon dioxide; any impurities will be left as ash. Jewelers must be careful when molding the metal in a diamond ring.

Consequently, pyrotechnic compositions based on synthetic diamond powder can be prepared. The resulting sparks are of the usual red-orange color, comparable to charcoal, but show a very linear trajectory which is explained by their high density.

Diamond has a wide bandgap of 5. This means that pure diamond should transmit visible light and appear as a clear colorless crystal.

Colors in diamond originate from lattice defects and impurities. The diamond crystal lattice is exceptionally strong, and only atoms of nitrogen , boron and hydrogen can be introduced into diamond during the growth at significant concentrations up to atomic percents.

Transition metals nickel and cobalt , which are commonly used for growth of synthetic diamond by high-pressure high-temperature techniques, have been detected in diamond as individual atoms; the maximum concentration is 0.

Virtually any element can be introduced to diamond by ion implantation. Nitrogen is by far the most common impurity found in gem diamonds and is responsible for the yellow and brown color in diamonds.

Boron is responsible for the blue color. Plastic deformation is the cause of color in some brown [45] and perhaps pink and red diamonds. Colored diamonds contain impurities or structural defects that cause the coloration, while pure or nearly pure diamonds are transparent and colorless.

Most diamond impurities replace a carbon atom in the crystal lattice , known as a carbon flaw. The most common impurity, nitrogen, causes a slight to intense yellow coloration depending upon the type and concentration of nitrogen present.

Diamonds of a different color, such as blue, are called fancy colored diamonds and fall under a different grading scale. In , the Wittelsbach Diamond , a Diamonds cut glass, but this does not positively identify a diamond because other materials, such as quartz, also lie above glass on the Mohs scale and can also cut it.

Diamonds can scratch other diamonds, but this can result in damage to one or both stones. Hardness tests are infrequently used in practical gemology because of their potentially destructive nature.

Diamonds also possess an extremely high refractive index and fairly high dispersion. Taken together, these factors affect the overall appearance of a polished diamond and most diamantaires still rely upon skilled use of a loupe magnifying glass to identify diamonds "by eye".

Diamonds are extremely rare, with concentrations of at most parts per billion in source rock. Loose diamonds are also found along existing and ancient shorelines , where they tend to accumulate because of their size and density.

Most diamonds come from the Earth's mantle , and most of this section discusses those diamonds. However, there are other sources.

Some blocks of the crust, or terranes , have been buried deep enough as the crust thickened so they experienced ultra-high-pressure metamorphism. These have evenly distributed microdiamonds that show no sign of transport by magma.

In addition, when meteorites strike the ground, the shock wave can produce high enough temperatures and pressures for microdiamonds and nanodiamonds to form.

A common misconception is that diamonds are formed from highly compressed coal. Coal is formed from buried prehistoric plants, and most diamonds that have been dated are far older than the first land plants.

It is possible that diamonds can form from coal in subduction zones , but diamonds formed in this way are rare, and the carbon source is more likely carbonate rocks and organic carbon in sediments, rather than coal.

Diamonds are far from evenly distributed over the Earth. A rule of thumb known as Clifford's rule states that they are almost always found in kimberlites on the oldest part of cratons , the stable cores of continents with typical ages of 2.

The Argyle diamond mine in Australia , the largest producer of diamonds by weight in the world, is located in a mobile belt , also known as an orogenic belt , [61] a weaker zone surrounding the central craton that has undergone compressional tectonics.

Instead of kimberlite, the host rock is lamproite. Lamproites with diamonds that are not economically viable are also found in the United States, India and Australia.

Kimberlites can be found in narrow 1 to 4 meters dikes and sills, and in pipes with diameters that range from about 75 m to 1.

Fresh rock is dark bluish green to greenish gray, but after exposure rapidly turns brown and crumbles. They are a mixture of xenocrysts and xenoliths minerals and rocks carried up from the lower crust and mantle , pieces of surface rock, altered minerals such as serpentine , and new minerals that crystallized during the eruption.

The texture varies with depth. The composition forms a continuum with carbonatites , but the latter have too much oxygen for carbon to exist in a pure form.

Instead, it is locked up in the mineral calcite Ca C O 3. All three of the diamond-bearing rocks kimberlite, lamproite and lamprophyre lack certain minerals melilite and kalsilite that are incompatible with diamond formation.

In kimberlite, olivine is large and conspicuous, while lamproite has Ti- phlogopite and lamprophyre has biotite and amphibole.

They are all derived from magma types that erupt rapidly from small amounts of melt, are rich in volatiles and magnesium oxide , and are less oxidizing than more common mantle melts such as basalt.

These characteristics allow the melts to carry diamonds to the surface before they dissolve. Kimberlite pipes can be difficult to find.

They weather quickly within a few years after exposure and tend to have lower topographic relief than surrounding rock.

If they are visible in outcrops, the diamonds are never visible because they are so rare. In any case, kimberlites are often covered with vegetation, sediments, soils or lakes.

In modern searches, geophysical methods such as aeromagnetic surveys , electrical resistivity and gravimetry , help identify promising regions to explore.

This is aided by isotopic dating and modeling of the geological history. Then surveyors must go to the area and collect samples, looking for kimberlite fragments or indicator minerals.

The latter have compositions that reflect the conditions where diamonds form, such as extreme melt depletion or high pressures in eclogites.

However, indicator minerals can be misleading; a better approach is geothermobarometry , where the compositions of minerals are analyzed as if they were in equilibrium with mantle minerals.

Finding kimberlites requires persistence, and only a small fraction contain diamonds that are commercially viable. The only major discoveries since about have been in Canada.

Since existing mines have lifetimes of as little as 25 years, there could be a shortage of new diamonds in the future. Diamonds are dated by analyzing inclusions using the decay of radioactive isotopes.

Depending on the elemental abundances, one can look at the decay of rubidium to strontium , samarium to neodymium , uranium to lead , argon to argon , or rhenium to osmium.

Those found in kimberlites have ages ranging from 1 to 3. The kimberlites themselves are much younger.

Most of them have ages between tens of millions and million years old, although there are some older exceptions Argyle, Premier and Wawa. Thus, the kimberlites formed independently of the diamonds and served only to transport them to the surface.

The reason for the lack of older kimberlites is unknown, but it suggests there was some change in mantle chemistry or tectonics. No kimberlite has erupted in human history.

Such depths occur below cratons in mantle keels , the thickest part of the lithosphere. These regions have high enough pressure and temperature to allow diamonds to form and they are not convecting, so diamonds can be stored for billions of years until a kimberlite eruption samples them.

Host rocks in a mantle keel include harzburgite and lherzolite , two type of peridotite. The most dominant rock type in the upper mantle , peridotite is an igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene ; it is low in silica and high in magnesium.

However, diamonds in peridotite rarely survive the trip to the surface. They formed in eclogite but are distinguished from diamonds of shallower origin by inclusions of majorite a form of garnet with excess silicon.

Diamond is thermodynamically stable at high pressures and temperatures, with the phase transition from graphite occurring at greater temperatures as the pressure increases.

Thus, the deeper origin of some diamonds may reflect unusual growth environments. In the first known natural samples of a phase of ice called Ice VII were found as inclusions in diamond samples.

The mantle has roughly one billion gigatonnes of carbon for comparison, the atmosphere-ocean system has about 44, gigatonnes. It can also be altered by surface processes like photosynthesis.

This variability implies that they are not formed from carbon that is primordial having resided in the mantle since the Earth formed. Instead, they are the result of tectonic processes, although given the ages of diamonds not necessarily the same tectonic processes that act in the present.

Diamonds in the mantle form through a metasomatic process where a C-O-H-N-S fluid or melt dissolves minerals in a rock and replaces them with new minerals.

Diamonds form from this fluid either by reduction of oxidized carbon e. Using probes such as polarized light, photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence , a series of growth zones can be identified in diamonds.

The characteristic pattern in diamonds from the lithosphere involves a nearly concentric series of zones with very thin oscillations in luminescence and alternating episodes where the carbon is resorbed by the fluid and then grown again.

Diamonds from below the lithosphere have a more irregular, almost polycrystalline texture, reflecting the higher temperatures and pressures as well as the transport of the diamonds by convection.

Geological evidence supports a model in which kimberlite magma rose at 4—20 meters per second, creating an upward path by hydraulic fracturing of the rock.

As the pressure decreases, a vapor phase exsolves from the magma, and this helps to keep the magma fluid. Then, at lower pressures, the rock is eroded, forming a pipe and producing fragmented rock breccia.

As the eruption wanes, there is pyroclastic phase and then metamorphism and hydration produces serpentinites. Although diamonds on Earth are rare, they are very common in space.

In meteorites , about three percent of the carbon is in the form of nanodiamonds , having diameters of a few nanometers.

Sufficiently small diamonds can form in the cold of space because their lower surface energy makes them more stable than graphite. The isotopic signatures of some nanodiamonds indicate they were formed outside the Solar System in stars.

High pressure experiments predict that large quantities of diamonds condense from methane into a "diamond rain" on the ice giant planets Uranus and Neptune.

Diamonds may exist in carbon-rich stars, particularly white dwarfs. One theory for the origin of carbonado , the toughest form of diamond, is that it originated in a white dwarf or supernova.

The most familiar uses of diamonds today are as gemstones used for adornment , and as industrial abrasives for cutting hard materials. The markets for gem-grade and industrial-grade diamonds value diamonds differently.

The dispersion of white light into spectral colors is the primary gemological characteristic of gem diamonds. In the 20th century, experts in gemology developed methods of grading diamonds and other gemstones based on the characteristics most important to their value as a gem.

Four characteristics, known informally as the four Cs , are now commonly used as the basic descriptors of diamonds: these are its mass in carats a carat being equal to 0.

A large, flawless diamond is known as a paragon. A large trade in gem-grade diamonds exists. Although most gem-grade diamonds are sold newly polished, there is a well-established market for resale of polished diamonds e.

Secondary alluvial diamond deposits, on the other hand, tend to be fragmented amongst many different operators because they can be dispersed over many hundreds of square kilometers e.

The De Beers company, as the world's largest diamond mining company, holds a dominant position in the industry, and has done so since soon after its founding in by the British imperialist Cecil Rhodes.

De Beers is currently the world's largest operator of diamond production facilities mines and distribution channels for gem-quality diamonds.

As a part of reducing its influence, De Beers withdrew from purchasing diamonds on the open market in and ceased, at the end of , purchasing Russian diamonds mined by the largest Russian diamond company Alrosa.

Further down the supply chain, members of The World Federation of Diamond Bourses WFDB act as a medium for wholesale diamond exchange, trading both polished and rough diamonds.

Once purchased by Sightholders which is a trademark term referring to the companies that have a three-year supply contract with DTC , diamonds are cut and polished in preparation for sale as gemstones 'industrial' stones are regarded as a by-product of the gemstone market; they are used for abrasives.

Recently, diamond cutting centers have been established in China, India, Thailand , Namibia and Botswana. The recent expansion of this industry in India, employing low cost labor, has allowed smaller diamonds to be prepared as gems in greater quantities than was previously economically feasible.

Diamonds prepared as gemstones are sold on diamond exchanges called bourses. There are 28 registered diamond bourses in the world.

Diamonds can be sold already set in jewelry, or sold unset "loose". Mined rough diamonds are converted into gems through a multi-step process called "cutting".

Diamonds are extremely hard, but also brittle and can be split up by a single blow. Therefore, diamond cutting is traditionally considered as a delicate procedure requiring skills, scientific knowledge, tools and experience.

Its final goal is to produce a faceted jewel where the specific angles between the facets would optimize the diamond luster, that is dispersion of white light, whereas the number and area of facets would determine the weight of the final product.

For example, the diamond might be intended for display or for wear, in a ring or a necklace, singled or surrounded by other gems of certain color and shape.

Some of them are special, produced by certain companies, for example, Phoenix , Cushion , Sole Mio diamonds, etc. The most time-consuming part of the cutting is the preliminary analysis of the rough stone.

It needs to address a large number of issues, bears much responsibility, and therefore can last years in case of unique diamonds.

The following issues are considered:. After initial cutting, the diamond is shaped in numerous stages of polishing. Unlike cutting, which is a responsible but quick operation, polishing removes material by gradual erosion and is extremely time consuming.

The associated technique is well developed; it is considered as a routine and can be performed by technicians. Those flaws are concealed through various diamond enhancement techniques, such as repolishing, crack filling, or clever arrangement of the stone in the jewelry.

Remaining non-diamond inclusions are removed through laser drilling and filling of the voids produced. And the firm created new markets in countries where no diamond tradition had existed before.

Ayer's marketing included product placement , advertising focused on the diamond product itself rather than the De Beers brand, and associations with celebrities and royalty.

Without advertising the De Beers brand, De Beers was advertising its competitors' diamond products as well, [] but this was not a concern as De Beers dominated the diamond market throughout the 20th century.

De Beers still advertises diamonds, but the advertising now mostly promotes its own brands, or licensed product lines, rather than completely "generic" diamond products.

Brown-colored diamonds constituted a significant part of the diamond production, and were predominantly used for industrial purposes. They were seen as worthless for jewelry not even being assessed on the diamond color scale.

After the development of Argyle diamond mine in Australia in , and marketing, brown diamonds have become acceptable gems. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and thermal conductivity, making many of the gemological characteristics of diamonds, such as the 4 Cs , irrelevant for most applications.

The boundary between gem-quality diamonds and industrial diamonds is poorly defined and partly depends on market conditions for example, if demand for polished diamonds is high, some lower-grade stones will be polished into low-quality or small gemstones rather than being sold for industrial use.

Within the category of industrial diamonds, there is a sub-category comprising the lowest-quality, mostly opaque stones, which are known as bort.

Industrial use of diamonds has historically been associated with their hardness, which makes diamond the ideal material for cutting and grinding tools.

Diamonds Video

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